Madison County, in northeast Georgia, was created on December 5, 1811, by an act of the state legislature. Originally inhabited by Creek and Cherokee Indians, the land was gradually ceded during the colonial period to Governor James Wright of Georgia and was organized into two counties—Wilkes and Franklin. Eventually that land was divided into smaller counties, and Madison County was created from portions of Clarke, Elbert, Franklin, Jackson, and Oglethorpe counties. Georgia's thirty-eighth county was named for James Madison, who was president of the United States at the time of its creation.
According to the 2010 U.S. census, the population of Madison County was 28,120, an increase from the 2000 population of 25,730. Incorporated towns in the county are Carlton, Colbert, Comer, Danielsville, Hull, and Ila.
Madison County's most famous native is Crawford Long. Born in Danielsville in 1815, Long was the first physician to use sulfuric ether as anesthesia during surgery. As a young doctor in Jefferson (in neighboring Jackson County) he used the gas in 1842 when he removed a tumor from the neck of James Venable for two dollars.
Besides being the birthplace of Long, Madison County is home to several other historic landmarks. New Hope Presbyterian Church, established in 1788, is Georgia's third oldest church.
Madison County is also home to Jubilee Partners, a Christian service community located near Comer.
Paul Tabor, The History of Madison County, Georgia (N.p.: n.p., 1974).
M. Leslie Madden, Georgia Institute of Technology
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