It is important to first identify what made the Cherokees a distinct social group. The Cherokees occupied a common homeland in the southern Appalachian Mountains known in Georgia as the Blue Ridge, including much of the
Though a shared cultural heritage and political connections also conjoined the Cherokees into a recognizable ethnic group, they were far from a united people. Social, political, and religious activity centered on the local village. They organized themselves into the divisions known during the Historic Period: the Overhill Towns, the Middle Towns, the Out Towns, the Valley Towns, and the Lower Towns. The latter two made up the Cherokee inhabitants of Georgia.
Regionalism further generated divisions. For example, the Lower Towns, such as Chattooga, were situated on the headwaters of the upper Savannah River in present-day Georgia and South Carolina. Their particular location resulted in frequent interactions with Georgians, Carolinians, and Creek Indians. This contrasted to the Overhill Cherokees in present-day east Tennessee. Many of their crosscultural exchanges took place with a different set of neighbors, including the Shawnees and Iroquois. These varying locations and identities influenced the ways in which Cherokees interacted with outsiders. When pursuing a more thorough rendering of Cherokee history than presented here, it is necessary to appreciate these local and regional differences.
The Cherokees inhabited the mountainous South long before the arrival of Europeans and Africans. Archaeological evidence and
Cherokees and some of the ancestors of the Creeks had a long history of interaction in the north Georgia mountains. Both had ancestors who were part of the Mississippian Period chiefdoms (A.D. 800-1600) and who built impressive mounds throughout Georgia. With the arrival of Spanish explorers and Old World diseases, the chiefdoms collapsed, and remnant populations coalesced into new political entities, such as the Cherokees and Creeks. North Georgia subsequently served as a dynamic borderland between the two groups after the arrival of the British in the Southeast.
English-Cherokee Trade and Alliance
Early Cherokee history experienced a profound change with the founding of Carolina (1670) and Georgia (1733). The Cherokees became key trading partners of the British in Augusta and Charleston, South Carolina. Traders often resided within Cherokee villages as they exchanged tools, weapons, and other manufactured goods for
The Yamasee War (1715), for example, was one of the most destructive wars in the colonial Southeast. During that conflict, the Yamasee Indians and their allies warred against Carolina as a result of trading abuses and land encroachments. The British presence in the Carolina lowcountry remained uncertain until Cherokee intervention tipped the balance. The Cherokees promised to assist the British and then killed a delegation of anti-Carolina Creeks. This action cemented the English-Cherokee alliance, but it also unleashed a forty-year war between the Cherokees and Creeks. Thereafter, both the Cherokees and British kept a guarded eye on the Creeks, who maintained trading ties to Carolina and Georgia but also to the French in Louisiana. These intertribal and imperial concerns became even more pronounced with the onset of the Seven Years' War.
Seven Years' War
The English-Cherokee alliance was sorely tested during the Seven Years' War, a worldwide conflict that involved many theaters and included the French and Indian War (1754-63) in North America. As Britain
Cherokee warriors attacked settlers throughout the southern colonies, while the British responded with two military incursions during the Anglo-Cherokee War (1759-61). During these invasions of their homeland, Cherokees failed to prevent widespread destruction of their towns. Those towns nearest to Georgia and South Carolina were the most affected. British regulars and colonial militia torched Cherokee homes, public structures, and agricultural fields. Many townspeople were temporarily displaced by the tumult of war, which hastened the spread of a recent outbreak of smallpox in 1759-60 with deadly results. The Cherokees experienced significant population loss, and it would take years before village life returned to normal.
If the Cherokees thought the Seven Years' War was a disastrous event, they would become even more unsettled during the American Revolution. For the Cherokees, this war lasted from 1776 to 1794. With the commencement of hostilities between the British and the colonists, the Cherokees became divided over how to respond to the emerging crisis. Few Cherokees supported the expansionist Americans, but many villagers favored neutrality. Enough Cherokees supported the British in 1776, however, to wage war openly against the southern states.
These multistate invasions, coupled with significant territorial loss following the treaties of DeWitt's Corner and Long Island of Holston (1777), further divided the Cherokees. Many villagers sought peace with the Americans, but a large contingent of warriors continued to fight and relocated their towns to north Georgia. Led by a charismatic warrior named Dragging Canoe, the Chickamauga Cherokees, as they were called, pursued closer relations with the British and other Indian groups who resisted American expansion. They continued to war against the United States for more than a decade after the Treaty of Paris (1783) ended the Revolution. Only after repeated invasions of their homeland did the Chickamauga Cherokees finally agree to end hostilities.
Nineteenth-Century Nationhood and Transformation
The cost of peace was high. Successive treaties with the Americans in the 1790s and early 1800s, such as the
Central to this effort was the emergence of a more centralized Cherokee society, and in 1827 a constitutional government, the Cherokee Nation, was established. Led by principal chief (the equivalent of president) John Ross, counselor Major Ridge, and Charles Hicks, who were known as the "Cherokee Triumvirate," this new political entity eventually witnessed the adoption of a written constitution, council, mounted police force, and many other Western-influenced institutions. The new capital at New Echota (near Calhoun in present-day Gordon County), reflected a major demographic change for the Cherokees, whose core areas of settlement had shifted to northwest Georgia.
The transition to nationhood was not an easy process. The Cherokees experienced many difficulties in dealing with both internal and external challenges. Town and regional interests remained strong, and political factionalism intensified throughout the period. Much of this infighting could be connected to vast
An influx of Europeans and Africans complicated the ethnic and racial makeup of Cherokee society. The deerskin economy had also largely been replaced by an agricultural system and a move toward private ownership of property that encouraged male-centered farming and herding. A proliferation of missionaries to the Cherokees in the early nineteenth century—most notably by Moravians from North Carolina but including those of other denominations as well—also served to create a Euro-Christian-educated elite. The result was social and economic stratification between those Cherokees—such as Joseph Vann, Major Ridge, and John Ross—who turned to plantation agriculture supported by a workforce of African American slaves, and those whose livelihoods and community values were similar to Cherokees of an earlier generation.
The Cherokee Phoenix, the first Native American newspaper in the United States, began publication in the late 1820s and featured both English and Cherokee text (a syllabary created by Sequoyah). Elias Boudinot served as editor from 1828 until 1832, when he was forced to resign because of his stance in favor of Cherokee removal.
Loss of a Nation
In the 1820s and 1830s Georgia conducted a relentless campaign to remove the Cherokees. Between 1827
The strategies of the Cherokee leadership diverged sharply. Ridge became convinced that either warfare or negotiation with the U.S. government must proceed. He became a leader of the Treaty Party, which favored removal to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River (in present-day Oklahoma), in exchange for financial compensation of $5 million to the Cherokees. Ross, on the other hand, refused to believe that Americans would oust the most "civilized" native people in the Southeast. His faith in the republican form of government, the authority of the Supreme Court, and the political power of Cherokee supporters, especially the Whig Party, gave him confidence that Cherokee rights would be protected.
In December 1835 Ridge and a minority of
The descendants of those who were removed would become known as the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma. A smaller number of Cherokees avoided forced removal and remained in the mountains of North Carolina. They became the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians.
Tom Hatley, The Dividing Paths: Cherokees and South Carolinians through the Era of Revolution (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993).
William G. McLoughlin, Cherokee Renascence in the New Republic (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1986).
James Mooney, James Mooney's History, Myths, and Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees (1900; reprint, Asheville, North Carolina: Historical Images, 1992).
John Oliphant, Peace and War on the Anglo-Cherokee Frontier, 1756-1763 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2001).
Theda Perdue, Cherokee Women: Gender and Culture Change, 1700-1835 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998).
Theda Perdue, Slavery and the Evolution of Cherokee Society, 1540-1866 (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979).
Theda Perdue and Michael D. Green, The Cherokee Nation and the Trail of Tears (New York: Viking, 2007).
David S. Williams, From Mounds to Megachurches: Georgia's Religious Heritage (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2008).
Tyler Boulware, West Virginia University
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