Whitewater paddling is one of the fastest-growing outdoor recreational activities in the United States. Whitewater enthusiasts by the thousands have discovered that Georgia, blessed with a multitude of navigable rivers, abundant rainfall, and marked changes in elevation, is in many ways a whitewater paradise.
Whitewater paddling is a general term that may be used to describe a variety of activities.
The American Whitewater Association lists more than twenty Georgia rivers, primarily in the northern mountains, as suitable for whitewater paddling. A wide range of difficulty levels is represented, from gentle ripples and occasional shoals appropriate for the novice to sheer drops of thirty feet or more, navigable only by experts. Georgia's mild climate also makes the state an ideal paddling destination, since boaters can enjoy the sport year round with minimal protective clothing.
Although a handful of hardy individuals have been canoeing difficult whitewater since the 1940s and earlier, whitewater paddling did not emerge as a sport until the development of durable rafts designed for use by the military. Surplus rafts became available for civilian use after World War II (1941-45) and began to be used by recreational boaters shortly thereafter. Rafts were ideally suited for whitewater paddling because of the resiliency of the materials used in their construction—primarily reinforced rubber and plastic. These boats could withstand powerful impacts with rocks and emerge unscathed.
Rafts remained the primary boat of choice for southeastern whitewater until the 1950s.
Beginning in the late 1970s whitewater clubs sprang up at the University of Georgia and the Georgia Institute of Technology. These clubs, among others, served to introduce many people to the sport, and they continue to do so. The 1972 movie Deliverance, adapted from a novel by James Dickey, was filmed on two Georgia rivers, the Chattooga and the Tallulah, as well as on the Chauga in neighboring South Carolina. This movie sparked much interest in the new sport, and greater numbers of people began paddling Georgia whitewater. Outfitters also began establishing businesses to accommodate people interested in rafting, canoeing, or kayaking in the state.
Although whitewater paddling is an enjoyable way to experience the majestic scenery of Georgia's waterways, it is not without risk, and fatalities do occur. To reduce the risk, some safety precautions should be observed.
An international rating scale for comparing river difficulty was developed using six classes or difficulty levels. Class 1, the easiest level, is defined as fast-moving water with small waves, a few obvious obstructions, and relatively little danger to accidental swimmers. The classes increase in difficulty, culminating in Class 6, which is described as extreme and exploratory. These runs are almost never attempted, even by expert paddlers, and offer extremes of danger and unpredictability. The consequences of a mistake can be severe or fatal.
As interest in whitewater paddling has increased, several terms have been developed to describe river phenomena and paddling maneuvers.
eddy: a pocket of water downstream of an obstacle that flows back upstream
ferry: a maneuver used to move back and forth across a river
hole: a swirling vortex of water where the river flows over an obstacle and drops toward the river bottom, leaving a pocket into which upstream current flows
keeper: a dangerous hole that can hold a swimmer or boat for an extended period of time
put-in: the place where the whitewater trip begins
scout: to walk along the bank to inspect a rapid
strainer: an obstacle, such as a tree, that lets water flow through freely but traps swimmers, boats, and debris
take-out: the place where the trip ends
Although Georgia's whitewater rivers and creeks are far too numerous to describe in detail, two rivers in particular, both in the northeast Georgia mountains near Clayton,
The Tallulah River and the gorge through which it flows are among the geological marvels of the Southeast. The Tallulah River is also one of the premier whitewater runs in the world. Located in Rabun County, Tallulah Gorge and the nearby town of Tallulah Falls were once tourist destinations, until a hydroelectric dam completed in 1914 silenced the mighty falls. In 1988 the Georgia Power Company and the federal government reached an agreement allowing recreational releases of water from the dam at the head of the gorge five weekends per year. Overnight a world-class, expert-level whitewater run was reborn. The fall and spring releases in Tallulah gorge draw whitewater enthusiasts from around the globe as well as hundreds of spectators.
As increasing numbers of paddlers are beginning to discover, whitewater paddling offers a wonderful way to enjoy the natural beauty of Georgia.
Fred Brown and Nell Jones, eds., The Georgia Conservancy's Guide to the North Georgia Mountains, 3d ed. (Atlanta: Longstreet Press, 1996).
Bob Sehlinger and Don Otey, A Paddler's Guide to Northern Georgia: A Canoeing and Kayaking Guide to the Streams of the Cumberland Plateau, Blue Ridge Mountains, and Eastern Piedmont (Birmingham, Ala.: Menasha Ridge Press, 1993).
Joseph C. Moore, Danielsville
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