Georgia's Cultural Landscape: Overview
Georgia's cultural landscape is a product of the distinct history of the state, of what has been built, of what has been preserved,
and of past and future developments. The ordinary, or vernacular, environment in which its people live, work, and play represents
many layers of time and human activity. From the coastal settlements, marshes, and beaches through the sandy hills and wiregrass agricultural areas of middle Georgia to the sprawling cities of the Piedmont and the mountains of north Georgia, the diverse qualities of the natural and manmade environment are a fundamental part of
the lives of all Georgians.
Evidence of History in Georgia's Landscape
Though Georgia's history is a part of the nation's history and shares many national patterns, the state has a distinct history
that is reflected in the cultural landscape. Thousands of years of Native American occupation
followed by two centuries of Spanish exploration and settlement preceded the founding of the Georgia colony in 1733 and have left their mark in archaeological sites across the state. Much of this prehistory and colonial history remains
undocumented, but the Spanish and early colonial period is represented by such places as Fort Frederica and the Bloody Marsh battlefield on St. Simons Island. Sapelo Island's shell ring, the Etowah Indian Mounds, and similar sites preserve the evidence of Indian habitation. As the state's historic preservation plan points out, "The evidence of history takes the form of buildings and structures, historic and archaeological sites,
historic landscapes and traditional cultural properties, and historic districts."
Distinctive Georgia Patterns
Among the distinctive aspects of Georgia history is the colonial period. Remnants of the period include a small residue of colonial buildings and the Savannah plan, with its still-extant landscaped squares and town-house residential patterns. An extended frontier period and area
is still represented by the agricultural landscape of the
Piedmont and Wiregrass areas, and the Plantation Plain style farmhouses and other vernacular buildings of the early nineteenth century. High-style Greek revival and other classically detailed buildings and gardens from this
period remain in many Georgia towns. The nineteenth- and twentieth-century periods of settlement and development as well as
the practices of the timber industry, forestry management, and agriculture have left their mark in large expanses of agricultural and wooded countryside. Although considerably reduced in size, large
areas of the state reflect the impact of cotton as a primary economic determinant, as do the plantation buildings and fields associated with them. The cotton textile industry of the late nineteenth century produced mill complexes not only in the fall-line cities of Columbus, Macon, and Augusta but also in many smaller towns in north Georgia. Some, often very large, mill buildings still function as mills, but many
are being adapted to housing and other contemporary uses.
From the founding of Atlanta in 1837 as the termination point for a rail line, both the city and the railroads have exerted a dominant influence on the cultural landscape. Although the extent of the rail lines is continually diminishing,
the patterns they have made, some now repurposed as trails, remain. Depots and associated rail yard buildings are being preserved.
Atlanta, which has become a major transportation hub, continues to expand as one of the largest metropolitan centers in the
Georgia in the Nation's History
Distinct Georgia patterns have also been an important part of the nation's history. The Cherokee Indian nation, which was forced to leave the state in the 1830s, was for many years based in north Georgia.
A remarkable legacy of Cherokee buildings and archaeological sites remains. The role of the state as a major theater of the
Civil War (1861-65) is still visible, particularly in the buildings and battlefields of the Atlanta campaign and the March to the Sea corridors. A strong African American cultural presence throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and the major role
that Georgia played in the civil rights movement of the twentieth century have left an extensive imprint. This is especially visible in the Martin Luther King Jr. and Sweet Auburn areas of Atlanta as well as in buildings and neighborhoods all over the state.
While these larger patterns remind us of the historical forces that have shaped Georgia, it is in the places where people
live and work that the past is most detectable. Many Georgians live in historic residential neighborhoods;
some work in historic buildings or shop in older downtowns. The character of such places has been determined by architecture
and landscape. Contrary to general belief, the majority of residential buildings in these districts are not white-columned
antebellum mansions but, rather, late-nineteenth-century, two-story Victorian houses or early-twentieth-century Craftsman-style bungalows along tree-lined streets. Since the mid-twentieth century these
architectural examples have been joined by ranch-style houses often set in a suburban landscape of broad lawns and irregular
that with the passage of time are becoming historic features of our environment. Helping to shape these areas are the landscape
changes made by ordinary citizens in the places where they live. From the utilitarian "landscape of work" of rural farmsteads
to the ornamental, often formal, gardens that provide the setting for larger, more monumental structures to the many planting
fashions and traditions of residential yards and tree-lined streets, the individual decisions of many Georgians have defined
Enhancing historic residential areas are the rehabilitated downtowns and "Main Streets" across the state that are now part
of the economic and social life of many small towns and urban neighborhoods.
Such community landmarks as historic county courthouses, some with courthouse squares, and other public buildings and churches,
which are often their most visible features, also affect the character of these places. Parks and other public landscaped
spaces are also important defining features of these environments. For most of their buildings, Georgians have generally preferred
traditional forms and styles of architecture. However, Atlanta's modern buildings have not only shaped the landscape of Georgia's
largest metropolitan area but also influenced the architecture of other large Georgia cities.
Evolving Cultural Landscape
Georgia's cultural landscape is continually evolving, as the suburban areas around its largest cities grow and the highways needed to reach them expand.
Many residents deplore the sprawling development that is eating up the countryside and the traffic congestion that sprawl spawns, yet they value suburban living.
While the immediate environment often is taken for granted, in many places historic preservation activity and organizations
have begun, grown, and become strong in response to the loss or threatened loss of a valued place. Decisions that are made
about the balance between old and new development and how these affect the quality of community life determine the character
of Georgia's cultural landscape. Understanding the patterns of history, the natural environment, and the existing development
and exploring ways to retain historic places in the context of new development can help in making better decisions for the
Arnold R. Alanen and Robert Z. Melnick, Preserving Cultural Landscapes in America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000).
Historic Preservation Division, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, New Vision: The Preservation Plan for Georgia's Heritage (Atlanta, 1995).
Elizabeth A. Lyon, Flowery Branch